Decoupling Schedulers in C#
Development | Borna Gajić

Decoupling Schedulers in C#

Friday, Feb 9, 2024 • 3 min read
Discover the key to flexible code – decoupling schedulers for seamless integration and enhanced maintainability.


Here’s a motivation for today’s blog post: you have a very large application and you have a NuGet package referenced all around the project. One day, the only library contributor decides it’s time to stop. What you are left with is an unmaintained library, and a ton of scheduled code refactoring (pun intended). This scenario is rather uncommon, but nevertheless it’s a good practice to decouple from any concrete implementations.

Today’s example will showcase how to decouple from the popular library called Quartz.NET! We’ll start by defining our interfaces.


public interface IJob
    Task Execute(IJobContext context);
public interface IJobContext : IJobMetadata
    CancellationToken CancellationToken { get; }
public interface IJobAdapter;


The idea is to isolate Quartz.NET dependencies in one place (DLL) and use your interfaces in other places in the app. This way, you become decoupled from the implementation, and you don’t need to worry about who is actually implementing them.

This will be our adapter:

public class QuartzJobAdapter<TJob> : IJobAdapter, Quartz.IJob
    where TJob : IJob
    private readonly TJob _job;

    public QuartzJobAdapter(TJob job)
        _job = job;

    public async Task Execute(IJobExecutionContext context)
            await _job.Execute(new JobContext
                CancellationToken = context.CancellationToken,
                NextFireTimeUtc = context.NextFireTimeUtc,
                PreviousFireTimeUtc = context.PreviousFireTimeUtc
        catch (Exception ex)
            throw new JobExecutionException(ex);

We want to be able to create our own concrete IJob and call its Execute method inside Quartz.NET’s Execute method.

  • [DisallowConcurrentExecution] is added here if you don’t want to have multiple executions for the same JobKey.
  • [ActivatorUtilitiesConstructor] will be used by the ActivatorUtilities later on.

Job factory

The next step would be to implement a custom job factory capable of creating both our IJob and Quartz.IJob instances.

public class QuartzJobFactory : PropertySettingJobFactory
    private readonly IServiceProvider _serviceProvider;
    private readonly JobActivatorCache activatorCache = new();

    public QuartzJobFactory(IServiceProvider serviceProvider) => _serviceProvider = serviceProvider;

    // Omitted for brevity:
    // public override void ReturnJob(Quartz.IJob job);
    // public override void SetObjectProperties(object obj, JobDataMap data);
    // private sealed class ScopedJob : Quartz.IJob, IDisposable
    // ** Link to the code at the end of the blog post :) **

    protected override Quartz.IJob InstantiateJob(TriggerFiredBundle bundle, Quartz.IScheduler scheduler)
        var serviceScope = _serviceProvider.CreateScope();
        var (innerJob, flag) = CreateJob(bundle, serviceScope.ServiceProvider);
        return new ScopedJob(serviceScope, innerJob, !flag);

    private (Quartz.IJob Job, bool FromContainer) CreateJob(TriggerFiredBundle bundle, IServiceProvider serviceProvider)
        var innerJobType = bundle.JobDetail.JobType.GetGenericArguments().SingleOrDefault();

        if (
            (innerJobType?.IsAssignableTo(typeof(IJob)) ?? false)
            && !serviceProvider.GetRequiredService<IServiceProviderIsService>().IsService(innerJobType)
            throw new Exception($"Register all {nameof(IJob)} implementations directly, i.e. they should be resolvable through service provider.");
        else if (
            && serviceProvider.GetService(bundle.JobDetail.JobType) is Quartz.IJob quartzJob
            return (quartzJob, true);

        return (activatorCache.CreateInstance(serviceProvider, bundle.JobDetail.JobType), false);

Let’s delve into some generic coding. InstantiateJob is called by Quartz.NET so we have to override that method. This implementation utilizes Microsoft.DependencyInjection but can be adapted for use with various other frameworks (Autofac, DryIoc…).

  • InstantiateJob

    • We need to create a scope - why? This way we can control the disposition of activated services.
    • The ReturnJob method disposes IJob, this action will dispose of everything created within our scope.
  • CreateJob

    • The initial step involves checking for a generic type argument, SingleOrDefault can be replaced by something else, depending on your implementation.
    • innerJobType should be our concrete IJob, but a check is performed just to be sure, as one could register a Quartz.NET job directly.
    • Note the use of IServiceProviderIsService (Microsoft, what is this naming? 😶). This interface exposes a method that checks whether or not our IServiceProvider can resolve the given type. Read more about it here.
    • If everything is alright, we will either resolve a Quartz.IJob or our job adapter through the activatorCache.
internal sealed class JobActivatorCache
    private readonly ConcurrentDictionary<Type, ObjectFactory> activatorCache = new();

    public Quartz.IJob CreateInstance(IServiceProvider serviceProvider, Type jobType)

        var orAdd = activatorCache.GetOrAdd(jobType, ActivatorUtilities.CreateFactory, Type.EmptyTypes);

        return (Quartz.IJob)orAdd(serviceProvider, null);

JobActivatorCache leverages a great tool called ActivatorUtilities (you can find more information here). Essentially, this utility offers methods used for object creation and dependency injection in a more flexible and customizable way, providing a sophisticated alternative to using Activator directly. ActivatorUtilities.CreateFactory creates a delegate that instantiates a type with constructor arguments provided directly and/or from an IServiceProvider.

var services = new ServiceCollection();
services.AddQuartz(cfg =>
  • Ensure that you only reference your custom interfaces outside of the isolated DLL.
  • Remember to register concrete implementations directly (e.g. AddTransient<TestJob>()).

The last step is to implement your custom IScheduler, write some tests, and we’re done! If you wish to explore the full code example, the link is provided below.

Now, if you ever wish to change your implementation down the line, you can do so with considerably less effort!

💾 See the full example on Github!.

Thanks for reading!